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1. Effect of Treatment on Cyclosporine- and Nifedipine-Induced Gingival Enlargement: Clinical and Histologic

2. Advancements in Endodontic Surgery
3. New retrofill material
4. The New Apex Finder A.F.A.
5. System B Heat Source
EIE/Analytic MiniEndo
7. Forced eruption technique: Rationale and clinical report
8. Effect of 2% chlorhexidine on microtensile bond strength of composite to dentin

Effect of Treatment on Cyclosporine- and Nifedipine-Induced
Gingival Enlargement: Clinical and Histologic Results

Vol. 18, No. 1 1998 Page: 81
Author(s): Santi/Bral

Abstract: The clinical and histologic responses to periodontal treatment of gingival enlargements, induced when cyclosporine and nifedipine were administered singly or in combination, were evaluated. A significant corerlation was noted between plaque, gingivitis, and gingival overgrowth.Severity of enlargement appeared to be greater in patients on combined therapy. All treatment appraoches such as scaling, root planing, gingivectomy, and periodontal flaps, and a combination of therapies, wre effective in the management of gingival overgrowth up to 1 year after completion of treatment. Adjunctive use of chlorhexidine was found to be beneficial.
Advancements in Endodontic Surgery

Many practitioners still believe that the objective of endodontic surgery is to eliminate infected root apicies and/or periapical tissue. Often endodontic surgery is referred to incorrectly as an apicoectomy. According to Schoeffel, apicoectomy by itself is seldom enough to resolve root canal failures. The purpose of an apicoecomy is only to allow us to ³read² the root and examine the canals. To seal the canals, some form of retrofilling is usually necessary.

Apicoectomy may be considered definite treatment, however, in cases of mechanical failure such as apical blockage or perforation. Such complications may result in failure of an otherwise perfectly obturated root canal system. Surgical removal of the untreated apical portion of the root will correct the problem.

Burnishing gutta-percha is another fruitless maneuver according to Schoeffel. If you simply try to burnish the gutta-percha, you will pull it away from one wall as you burnish toward the opposite wall. Therefore, apicoectomy is merely one step toward the final objective - the retroseal.

Retroseal is the process that finally resolves most endodontic failures. Since the 1950s most clinicians have realizedthat virtually all failures result from leaking root canal systems. The often quoted Washington Study attributed root canal failures to apical percolation (63.46%), operator error (14.42%) root perforation (9.61%), calcified canals (3.85%), broken instrument (.96%), or case poor selection. Apicoectomy and retroseal can reverse all of these errors except improper case selection and some types of operator error.

It should be emphasized that endodontic surgery is not to be used instead of conventional endodontics. Surgery is indicated when conventional techniques cannot be used.

New retrofill material
Materials used to fill retro-preparations vary according to current research, but Bosworth's Super EBA is a fortified ZOE that is rapidly gaining acceptance as the retrofill of choice over traditional amalgam. The problem with amalgam retrofills is that they corrode and degenerate. Super EBA sets rock hard in minutes, is easily injected into the preparation, and will not corrode.

Gary B. Carr, DDS, a San Diego endodontist, invented the Ultrasonic Retrotip. Retrotip fits into limited access areas to produce practically perfect preparations.

EMDOGAIN® is a Swedish product which, in a biological way, recreates the tooth attachment lost due to periodontitis. The important ingredient in EMDOGAIN® is amelogenin, a protein that the body itself produces. This protein has an important function in the creation of teeth and their support, but is produced only during the time that our teeth are developed.

The New Apex Finder A.F.A.

The Apex Finder A.F.A. is a state-of-the-art apex locator that incorporates the highest level of technology possible to locate the apical terminus in a root canal.

System B Heat Source:

Developed by noted clinician Dr. L. Stephen Buchanan, the "Continuous Wave" technique utilizes heat carriers that closely match the shape of the root canal created during instrumentation. Once the master cone is seated, heat is delivered instantly to the "Buchanan plugger". When the heated tip contacts the master gutta percha cone, the material softens instantly, and can be condensed apically with ease. The downpack not only fills the canal to within 5 millimetres of the apex, but it obturates lateral and accessory canals within 10 seconds. We refer you to our obturation section for material on the technique.

EIE/Analytic MiniEndo

The MiniEndo is a sleek, compact ultrasonic unit designed specifically for endodontic applications. It is controlled by microprocessors which deliver the correct amount of power and amplitude to the universal tip to successfully complete all manner of endodontic procedures. In contrast to other units available, it is not a modified scaler.,

Forced eruption technique: Rationale and clinical report
Daniel Ziskind, DMDa
Ami Schmidt, DMDb
Zvia Hirschfeld, DMDc
Hebrew University, Faculty of Dental Medicine Jerusalem, Israel
Clinical Report Discussion Summary
Forced orthodontic eruption was first described in 1973 by Heithersay. 1 The clinical benefits of this procedure have been repeatedly demonstrated by restoring submerged roots, 2-13 root perforations at the coronal third, 14 and treating infrabony pockets. 15 Extrusion elevates the root, expands periodontal fibers, and results in coronal shift of marginal gingiva and bone. 2 Periodontal surgery is performed when necessary, before proceeding with restorative procedures to compensate for this process. 16-21

Orthodontic brackets that use edgewise, and Johnson twin-wire, or Universal bracket techniques were bonded to three or four adjacent teeth, at a specific height from the tips of their cusps. A straight piece of wire was then laid passively in the horizontal channel of the brackets. This orthodontic device has certain disadvantages both for patient and dentist, such as an increased risk of dental caries, trauma to adjacent soft tissue, compromised esthetics, and technically difficult construction of a therapeutic device.

This clinical report describes an alternative for forced eruption that minimizes the need for special orthodontic devices.

Effect of 2% chlorhexidine on microtensile bond strength of composite to dentin
J Adhes Dent. 2003 Summer;5(2):129-38. de Castro FL, de Andrade MF, Duarte Junior SL, Vaz LG, Ahid FJ. Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara School of Dentistry, UNESP Araraquara, Sao Paulo, Brazil. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of 2% chlorhexidine on the microtensile bond strength of composite resin to dentin treated with three dentin bonding systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Flat dentinal surfaces were prepared in 24 extracted human third molars. Teeth were randomly divided into 8 distinct experimental groups according to the adhesive applied (Prime & Bond NT, Single Bond and Clearfil SE Bond), the application (yes/no) of chlorhexidine, and the time point at which it was applied (before or after acid etching the dentin). Composite resin blocks were built up over treated surfaces, and teeth were then stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Samples were thermocycled, stored under the same conditions, and then vertically sectioned, thus obtaining specimens with 1.0 +/- 0.1 mm2 cross-sectional area. Specimens were stressed in tension at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. Bond strength results were evaluated using a one-way ANOVA (p < 0.05). The modes of failures were verified using optical microscopy. Dentin disks were obtained from 3 additional teeth treated in the same manner for observation under SEM. The most representative samples of fractured specimens were also observed under SEM. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences of bond strength values were found between any groups. Failures occurred mainly within the bond; exclusively adhesive fractures (adhesive-dentin) were not observed. CONCLUSION: The 2% chlorhexidine solution, applied before or after acid etching of the dentin, did not interfere with the microtensile bond strength of composite resin to the dentin treated with Prime & Bond NT, Single Bond, or Clearfil SE Bond bonding systems.
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